The major strategy of the Union army was to block the way through which the Confederate troops transported goods, supplies and even human resources. For this they needed to capture the Mississippi River and also the Confederate capital that was Richmond. The location of any place or area is very crucial in times of war and this was the main factor, which made the Union army aim at Vicksburg as its prime target of capture. As it was a verily significant port along the banks of the Mississippi River, General Ulysses S. Grant (the commander of the Union army) was aiming to capture it for the Union to gain complete control over the Mississippi River. Initially the people of Vicksburg refused to surrender. Nevertheless when General Grant laid siege to Vicksburg, its inhabitants did not have any choice than to surrender, which they did after 47 days since the Union army surrounded Vicksburg.
Vicksburg is so important to the union becase it was the only way to block the confederates supplies