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What Are The Steps In Decision Making?

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Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
Making Decision in Six Steps

Defining the Problem: The first step towards a decision making process is to define the problem. Obviously, there would be no need to make a decision without having a problem. So, the first thing one has to do is to state the underlying problem that has to be solved. You also have to clearly state the outcome or goal that you desire after you have made the decision. This is a good way to start, because stating your goals would help you in clarifying your thoughts.

Develop Alternatives: The situation of making a decision arises because there are many alternatives available for it. Hence, the next step after defining the main problem would be to state out the alternatives available for that particular situation. Here, you do not have to restrict yourself to think about the very obvious options, rather you can use your creative skills and come out with alternatives that may look a little irrelevant. This is important because sometimes solutions can come out from these out-of-the-box ideas. You would also have to do adequate research to come up with the necessary facts that would aid in solving the problem.

Evaluate the Alternatives: This can be said to be the one of the most important stages of the decision making process. This is the stage where you have to analyze each alternative you have come up with. You have to find out the advantages and disadvantages of each option. This can be done as per the research you have done on that particular alternative. At this stage, you can also filter out the options that you think are impossible or do not serve your purpose. Rating each option with a numerical digit would also help in the filtration process.

Make the Decision: This is the stage where the hard work you have put in analyzing would lead to. The evaluation process would help you in looking at the available options clearly and you have to pick which you think is the most applicable. You can also club some of the alternatives to come out with a better solution instead of just picking out any one of them.

Implement the Solution: The next obvious step after choosing an option would be implementing the solution. Just making the decision would not give the result one wants. Rather, you have to carry out on the decision you have made. This is a very crucial step because all the people involved in the implementation of a solution should know about the implications of making the decision. This is very essential for the decision to give successful results.

Monitor your Solution: Just making the decision and implementing it is not the end of the decision making process, it is very important to monitor your decision regularly. At this stage, you have to keep a close eye on the progress of the solution taken and also whether it has led to the results you expected.

These 6 steps to decision making process may, at first, seem very complicated. However, these are essential decision making techniques that would aid you in taking proper decisions in your personal as well as professional life. UWIMANA N
Mahwash Marcel Profile
Mahwash Marcel answered
Several steps have been recognized in decision making.  In presenting them, it is convenient to use a logical sequence but this pattern is a temporary one.  The steps are as follows:    1. Defining a decision:  In this phase, recognition of a problem arises and a diagnosis is made.  It is of a primary importance that the manager should first determine or specify his task, i.e., the aim or purpose to be achieved.    2. Analysing a decision:  In this phase, we analyze the decision by asking the questions:  What is the decision for, what will it change, what will it achieve, and whom will it affect.    3. Reviewing factors:  In this phase, we review the different factors which affect a situation.      4. Analysing possible course of action:  During this phase, we analyze all the possible alternatives.  Having examined all the relevant factors, it should become clear that there are a number of courses of action open to us.      5. Choosing the best alternatives:  During this phase, a particular course of action is selected from among those which are available.  When the mind has carried out its calculations, it offers the decision.    6. Implementing decision:  To implement means to put into action.  The process of decision is not complete until it is implemented and we have learnt to live with the consequences.      7. Evaluating decision:  The last step is decision making is the evaluation of the decision.  Sometimes, there is vigorous criticism of the decision that has been made.  The manager should proposed changes and their consequences.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
1. Recognition of Decision Requirements
2. Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes
3. Development of Alternatives
4. Selection of Alternatives
5. Implementation of Chosen Alternative
6. Evaluation and Feedback

Recognition of Decision Requirements: Awareness of problem or opportunities is the first step in decision making process that requires surveillance of internal and external environment. This comes through scanning the environment around, reports, discussion. A SWOT Model is best practice for scanning the environment. It discuss with Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats

Diagnosis and Analysis of Problem: Once problems and opportunities have been identified they must be redefined by diagnosis and analysis the underlying factors associated with that specific problem or opportunities. While Diagnosing and analysing following KEPNER & TREGO Model will help:

1. What is the state of disequilibrium affecting us?
2. When did it occur?
3. Where did it occur?
4. How did it occur?
5. To whom did it occur?
6. What is the urgency of problem?
7 What is the interconnectedness of events?
8. What result came from which activity?

Development of Alternatives: The next step is to generate alternatives (solutions) that will respond to the need of that situation and correct the underlying causes.

For programmed / Structured Problems, alternatives are easy and already defined in rules and procedures of the company

For Non-Programmed / Unstructured Problem: A new course of action is thus required that will meet the organization's needs. Decisions made is such high uncertainty managers may develop only one or two custom solutions that will satisfic for handling the problem

Selection of Alternatives: Then the important issue is the selection of best solutions that meets the organizations need, correct they underlying causes and bring desired outcomes with in effective and efficient boundaries

Implementation of Chosen Alternative: This is action phase of executing the selected solutions. Putting action means allocating resources such as personnel, information, equipments etc and monitoring them

Evaluation and Feedback: The final phase is evaluating and feedback. This is the process of checking the degree of whether the new strategy is going towards right direction, desired outcomes. All the collected information will help management to adjust their decision or move faward if everything is going well as planned.

Faraz (Adopted by Richard Darft)
jamila khan Profile
jamila khan answered
The decision making is the process of making choice among the several available alternatives for solving problem with a view to remove hindrances in the achievement of objectives of the enterprise.
The process of decision making comprises of the following steps.

1. DEFINITION
It consists in defining the objectives of decision to be made. It also involves defining the problem requiring decision, which means identifying, analysing and clearing stating the problem for which a decision is to be made.

2. INFORMATION
All necessary background information should be obtained. Certainly all available facts, opinion, data have to be collected.

3. ALTERNATIVES
It consists in identifying gathering and developing the various, possible alternatives must be subjected to searching details.

4. ANALYSIS
For making the analysis meaningful, the alternative must be subjected to searching details.

5. EVALUATION
It consists in the testing and evaluation the proposed actions, solutions or decision.

6. SELECTION
It consists in making selection of the best alternative courses of action, solution or decision.

7. TESTING
It consists in putting the decision to specific test designed for its testing in actual practice. The purpose off testing is to evaluate the efficacy, efficiency and festiveness of the solution.

8. IMPLEMENTATION
The implementation of the final alternative comprises of the execution of the finally selection and testing solution to the existing problem necessitated it in the given circumstances in the organization at a certain time.

9. FELLOW UP
It consists in obtaining necessary information about implementation work. The manager must make watchful up so as to determine success or other wise, the degree of success or failure and the reasons or it.

10. MODIFICATION
It consists in determining necessary changes and make supplementary decision for adopting the most urgent one there by modifying the decision.
Angela Davis Profile
Angela Davis answered
The STRONG process for decision making
S - state the issue
T - think about options
R - rate consequences
O - organize thoughts
N - narrow possibilities
G - go over decision
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
7 Steps of Decision Maker
1) Define
2) Describe
3) Develop Alternatives
4) Develop Agreement
5) Decide
6) Do
7) Determine

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