The Industrial Revolution has given rise to huge urban areas that need vast municipal services and so is responsible for creating a very specialized interdependent economic life. This means that employees within these sectors are far more reliant on the absolute will of their employers than perhaps their historical rural counterparts ever were.
This led to many incidences of unrest between capital and the labor force and many organizations sprang up to deal with the changes. One of these was Marxism, and another were the doctrines developed by Adam Smith and David Ricardo and which are referred to as laissez-faire, which takes the view that an economic system will function best if there is no interference from government. This belief is based on the idea that a natural economic order will give maximum well-being for an individual and a community if it is free of artificial regulation or stimulus.
However, the Industrial Revolution brought a need for state intervention and laissez-faire soon gave way and management in industry and business reflected the political stances that were being made.
The Industrial Revolution has provided an economic base that has given rise to professions, a huge expansion in the population and an improvement in living standards across the developed world; features that are still being worked towards in less developed countries and as such has provided the basis for many different management models.
There are many people who object to the word revolution being used to describe the huge events that took place, first in Britain, then Europe and the United States because it implies violence, when in fact many of the changes were gradual. This was also reflected in management as that too changed to meet the growing demands of the workplace, and also as management methods have been honed.